Evidence-Based Nutrient Recommendations

Vitamin K Updated


We updated our vitamin K article with recent research focused on bone and heart health.

Based on the evidence, it appears that getting plenty of vitamin K from food is good for bones, but research is mixed on the impact of vitamin K1 supplements on bone health.

In regards to vitamin K2 and bone health, most trials used pharmacological doses of vitamin K2 (much greater than what a meat-eater would consume through food) which doesn’t help us answer the question as to whether vegans are at a disadvantage by not having a dietary source of vitamin K2.

Some preliminary evidence suggests that vitamin K2 could reduce the risk of heart disease, but the research is mixed.

In summary, there remains a lack of research to support the claim that vegans are at a disadvantage compared to meat-eaters due to a lack of dietary vitamin K2.

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  • If you have a question about whether it's okay to cut supplements in half or combine supplements to achieve the dose we recommend, the answer is “Yes.” Be aware that nutrient recommendations are only estimates—it's not necessary to consume the exact amount we recommend every single day.
  • We aren't able to respond to questions about which brands of supplements to take.
  • We cannot provide personal nutrition advice for specific health conditions. If you need private counseling, here's a list of plant-based dietitians and we especially recommend VeganHealth contributor Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, LDN.
  • We urge you to consult with a qualified health professional for answers to your personal questions.